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Indexed/Abstracted in: CAB, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
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Huandan YANG, Bingbing ZHU, Ruifeng ZHANG
Department of Paediatrics, Xuzhou Children's Hospital, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, P.R. China
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by the abrupt inability of the kidneys to adequately excrete waste products and regulate fluid and electrolyte homeostasis appropriately. This results in an at least partially reversible increase in the blood concentration of creatinine and nitrogenous waste products. Moreover, medication eliminated via renal routes will accumulate that in turn result in a “second hit” to the already injured kidneys. Furthermore, fluid management and nutrition will be hampered by oliguria. Neonatal AKI is a frequent complication in children admitted to an ICU and is associated with significant short-term morbidity and mortality. Moreover, in newborns the diagnosis of AKI is more difficult since at birth serum creatinine (SCr) predominantly reflects maternal renal function. Furthermore, neonates are especially susceptible to hypovolemic kidney injury due to an inadequate renal auto regulation So, accurate assessment of renal function in children is important in a number of clinical situations including screening and/or monitoring of renal disease. The present review article will enlighten latest diagnostic as well as management options available for AKI in children.