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A Journal on Pediatrics, Neonatology, Adolescent Medicine,
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Indexed/Abstracted in: CAB, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
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Minerva Pediatrica 2016 December;68(6):391-7
Exposure to vehicular traffic is associated to a higher risk of hospitalization for bronchiolitis during the first year of life
Marcello LANARI 1, Silvia VANDINI 2, Federica PRINELLI 3, Fulvio ADORNI 3, Simona DI SANTO 3, 4, Michela SILVESTRI 5, Massimo MUSICCO 3, 4; for the Study Group of Italian Society of Neonatology on Risk Factors for RSV Hospitalization ✉
1 Pediatrics and Neonatology Unit, Imola Hospital, Imola, Italy; 2 Neonatology Unit, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna Italy; 3 Institute of Biomedical Technologies, National Research Council, Milan, Italy; 4 Foundation IRCCS Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy; 5 Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergy Unit, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy
BACKGROUND: The most common cause of hospitalization for children younger than age one is bronchiolitis. Several prenatal and environmental risk factors may affect the incidence of hospitalization for bronchiolitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to vehicular traffic and the incidence of hospitalization for bronchiolitis in children during their first year of life in Italy.
METHODS: A multicenter prospective birth cohort study, where equal numbers of newborns of 33-34, 35-37 and ≥38 wGA were recruited at birth (1814 children) in 30 Italian neonatology units. Two interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect data. The first interview was carried out at the end of the Italian epidemic season. The second interview was carried out when the child was one year old. Data on possible prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal/environmental risk factors and on vehicular traffic density in the zone of residence were collected. On each interview, parents were also asked about any hospitalizations of the child. The outcome measure was the hospitalization for bronchiolitis (International Health Service ICD-9 code 466).
RESULTS: Univariate analysis demonstrated that exposure to air pollution due to vehicular traffic, was significantly associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for bronchiolitis. The adjusted risk from logistic regression model confirmed that children exposed to air pollution due to vehicular traffic were at increased risk of hospitalization for bronchiolitis.
CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to air pollution due to vehicular traffic may increase the risk of hospitalization for bronchiolitis in the first year of life.