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Indexed/Abstracted in: CAB, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
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Ricci Z. 1, Romagnoli S. 2
1 Department of Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy;
2 Department of Human Health Sciences, Section of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University of Florence, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy
Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is the most effective way of managing severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients. RRT application in children is currently increasing due to the progressive rise of severity of critical illness in these patients. The burden of mortality in RRT children with AKI significantly outweights 50% of the dialized patients (depending also on the diagnosis and on the presence of multiple organ dysfunction). Many aspects of pediatric AKI requiring RRT are currently uncertain or have never been investigated. Whereas much of the clinical information applied to the adult patients is commonly reported to pediatric critically ill children, recently a significant evolution of RRT technology and novel research on pediatric dialysis warranted interesting evidence and important innovation in this field. In particular, it is currently a matter of debate how pediatric dialysis should be prescribed, when it is indicated and which modality should be utilized. This review will describe different modalities currently available for pediatric RRT, the main mechanisms of solute and water removal, standard and innovative technology specifically relased for neonatal dialysis, the most common prescriptions applicable to dialized children, indications to start and stop RRT.