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Indexed/Abstracted in: CAB, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,532
Online ISSN 1827-1715
Angele M. K., Loehe F., Faist E.
Newer immunosuppressive agents have dramatically reduced the rates of acute graft rejection over the last decade but may have exacerbated the problem of post-transplant infections. Causes of early mortality include graft dysfunction and sepsis. Late mortality occurs mainly due to sepsis. An excessive inflammatory response followed with a dramatic paralysis of cell-mediated immunity has been documented in septic patients. In transplanted individuals the pathophysiological changes of the immune response are further complicated by immunosuppressive agents. This article will focus on the effect of immunosuppressive agents and sepsis on cell-mediated immune responses. Moreover, potentially promising immunomodulatory approaches, i.e. human activated protein C, immunmodulatory diets containing L-arginine and fish oil, selective cytokine blockade, platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist, LPS receptor CD14 blockade and G-CSF, for the treatment of immunodysfunction in septic patients will be outlined in this review article. Most of them, however, have not been tested in the clinical arena in transplanted patients. Thus, the main part of the article, immunomodulation during sepsis in organ transplanted children is quite speculative and based on immunomodulatory strategies in other non-transplanted septic patients.