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Indexed/Abstracted in: CAB, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,532
Online ISSN 1827-1715
This review focuses on antibiotic treatment of acute urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children who are neurologically and anatomically intact. Neonates younger than 28 days with a febrile UTI should be hospitalized, given supportive care and treated with parenteral amoxicillin and cefotaxime. Following a good response to 3 to 4 days of parenteral antibacterial therapy, outpatient treatment with an oral antibiotic should be given to complete 14 days of therapy. Infants from 28 days to 3 months who appear clinically ill with a febrile UTI should be hospitalized, receive supportive care and parenteral administration of a 3rd generation cephalosporin or gentamicin. When these infants are clinically improved and afebrile for 24 hours they should be discharged to complete 14 days of therapy with an oral antibiotic. Infants from 28 days to 3 months of age who are not acutely ill with a febrile UTI may be managed as outpatients. Ceftriaxone or gentamicin should be administered parenterally and given each 24 h until the infant is afebrile for 24 hours. Fourteen days of therapy should be completed with an oral antibiotic. Children with complicated pyelonephritis should be hospitalized, receive supportive care and parenteral ceftriaxone or gentamicin each 24 hours until clinically improved and without fever for 24 hours. They should then complete 10 to 14 days of therapy with an oral antibiotic as an outpatient. Children with uncomplicated pyelonephritis should be rehydrated in the outpatient department (if necessary) and receive parenteral ceftriaxone or gentamicin each 24 hours until without fever for 24 hours. If clinically improved they should receive an oral antibiotic to complete 10 to 14 days of therapy. Children with cystitis who are only mildly symptomatic should be managed with supportive care until the result of the urine culture and sensitivity are available. Children with cystitis who are moderately to severely symptomatic should receive an oral antibiotic and supportive care immediately. If the therapy is effective, children with cystitis should show a good clinical response in 2 to 3 days. If the response is satisfactory and the culture shows an organism susceptible to the antibiotic used, complete 5 to 7 days of treatment with the oral antibiotic.