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A Journal on Ophthalmology
Minerva Oftalmologica 2011 December;53(4):83-90
language: English, Italian
Diagnostics of macular holes using optical coherent tomography (OCT)
Camardi A. D. V.
Private Pratictioner, Catania, Italia
The diagnostic instrument Optical Coherent Tomography (OCT) can be compared to a diagnostic ultrasound, which is distinguished by the fact that instead of reflecting sound waves, it uses the reflection of light waves. The tomograms obtained by scanning, appear with a false color scale, that shows the reflectivity of the retinal layer. They represent areas of minimal optical reflectivity. The dark colours blue and black represent areas of minimum optical reflectivity; highly reflective areas are highlighted by bright colours like red and white. The OCT diagnostic allows to highlight and study the degenerative diseases of the retina with an image resolution likely to highlight, even in the most small details, the presence of an epiretinal membrane or macular hole, and at the same time to give a nosographic classification of age-related macular degeneration or macular edema diabetes. The OCT technology is based on the difference between normal and pathological histology of the retina, and without the use of contrast agents, through the use of a probe infrared laser, allows to reconstruct the anatomy of the retina in the macular region. OCT allows an histopathologic examination in vivo of the retina without making no levy on the patient anatomy, highlighting one or more sections of the retina and evaluating the profile the retinal angiography evaluates the retina only in frontal plan. In macular holes, OCT enables us to recognize the different stages of evolution and is therefore useful for prognosis.