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Pichi F. 1, Morara M. 1, Torrazza C. 1, Mattana P. 2, Ciardella A. P. 1
1 Unità Operativa di Oftalmologia, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italia
2 Medical Service, Alfa Wassermann, Bologna, Italia
Although there are several types of ocular allergy, seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (SAC and PAC) represent the majority of all ocular allergy cases. The allergic response in conjunctivitis is typically elicited by ocular exposure to allergen that causes crosslinkage of membrane-bound IgE, which triggers mast cell degranulation, releasing a cascade of allergic and inflammatory mediators. One such mediator, histamine, is the primary contributor to the development of early-phase signs and symptom, that include itching, redness and swelling. Allergic conjunctivitis is a chronic pathology extremely common that remains difficult to manage effectively especially in the acute phase. It is wise to adopt a step-care approach, starting with identifying, avoiding and diluting the antigen, using simple effective therapy like icepacks, and then as the need arises progressing step-by-step to the top of the therapeutic “ladder” where the use of steroids and immunosuppressants become unavoidable. Because of all these reasons the use of topical eye drop containing the combination of decongestant and antihistamines represents the first step for SAC and PAC care management. Actually this pharmaceutical option is well representing by the combination of tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (vasoconstrictor-decongestant) and pheniramine maleate (antihistamines - antinflammatory) that have shown to be effective and well tolerated.