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Taibbi G. 1, Serafino M. 1, Nucci P. 1,2
1 U.D. Oftalmologia Pediatrica e Strabismo Ospedale San Paolo, Milano, Italia
2 Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italia
Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is a rare ocular motor disease affecting the smooth pursuit control system. The onset is generally within the first 6 months of life, and the oscillations are typically characterized by increasing velocity slow phases. Eye movement recording represents the only way to correctly diagnose and differentiate INS from fusion maldevelopment nystagmus syndrome (linear or decreasing slow phases) and from spasmus nutans syndrome (high frequency and low amplitude ocular oscillations). INS therapy relies on medical (memantine, baclofen), optical (glasses, contact lenses) or surgical (four horizontal rectus muscles detachment and reattachment at the original or a moved insertion) procedures. Visual acuity and nystagmus intensity are not suitable for evaluating the outcomes of therapy; rather, the mathematical function nystagmus expanded acuity function should be used to evaluate the foveation quality at different gaze angles.