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Rossi S., Di Iorio V., Caliendo L., Nesti A., Testa F.
Dipartimento di Oftalmologia della Seconda Università di Napoli, Napoli, Italia
Aim. The term retinitis pigmentosa (RP) defines a group of hereditary diseases characterized by a progressive degeneration of the photoreceptors, that at first affects the rods and then the cones. The main complications associated with the disease are cataract and cystoid macular edema. The purpose of the present study is to determine the incidence of cystoid macular edema (CME)in Italian patients affected by RP.
Methods. Ninety patients with clinical and genetic diagnosis of RP have been recruited by the “Centro Studi Retinopatie Ereditarie” of the Department of Ophthalmology of the Second University of Naples, Italy. All patients have been subjected to a complete ocular examination, consisting the measurement of central visual acuity with Snellen tables, a fundus examination, and optical coherence tomography.
Results. The 90 recruited patients presented a typical form of RP characterized by dystrophy of the EPR with accumulation of pigment type osteoblasts in 71 patients and an atypical form, pericentral type or sine pigment, in 19 patients. Thanks to optical coherence tomography, it was possible to make a diagnosis of CME in 14% of the patients. The CME was bilaterally present in 12 patients and monolaterally in three.
Conclusion. Numerous but controversial studies on the prevalence of the CME in RP are reported in literature. Data show that the percentage of incidence of the CME in patients with RP is not yet well defined, therefore, further studies, on a wider scale, could be useful to better define the percentage of incidence.