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Aleci C., Bredariol C., Cattani I., Dogliani M., Fea A. M., Musso M., Rabbione M. M., Sciandra L.
Infantile encephalopathy is defined and the consequences of neurolesive events on psychomotor development and on the sensory system are described. Cerebropathies are further divided into genetical or acquired and the symptoms are listed. Visual deficits are presented according to their anatomical location. Visual acuity can be lessened by ocular defects or by nystagmus amblyopia or cerebral lesions. Oculomotor deficits are classified and ocular apraxia is described. The problem of visual field defects and visual agnosia is discussed. The 2nd part deals with the semeiotic system, with particular attention to objective methods (examination, electrophysiological exams and imaging). Subjective methods commonly used in infants can be helpful (preferential looking and Hyvarinen test). In the 3rd part of the paper a new psychophysical method (Eidomorphometry), which was developed to investigate the spatial relationship in neuroophthalmology and to widen our knowledge on the quality of vision, is presented. This method investigate the discrimination between circles and ellypses with a variable radius. The spatial relationship perception is presented in normal subjects, in dyslexia, amblyopia and in several cerebropathies.