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Nuzzi R., Minazzi G. L., Donati S.
The direct study of the inner eye is generally carried out using external methods. However, these methods do not allow an exploration of the intraocular structures as a whole. The development of ocular endoscopy is based on the need to achieve a more detailed and complete exploration of the all the intraocular structures and to improve the imaging of surgical procedures. The first prototypes date back to 1934; its use became routine in various disciplines in the Eighties, but in the ophthalmology this did not occur until the early Nineties. The type of lighting used and other associated materials are important; The endoscopic image is more effectively processed using videoendoscopy or through an operating microscope. The access routes for the various ocular structures have been defined (orbit, tear ducts, eyeball). The reference anatomical-endoscopic landmark can be found on the corneociliary complex (from the outer cornea to the ciliary bodies); between the anterior and posterior spaces and centred on the edge of the pupil. Ocular endoscopy is used is different sectors of ophthalmology: orbit surgery, tear duct surgery, cataract intervention, glaucoma and vitreoretinal surgery. Endoscopy offers a better view of the various phases of cataract extraction surgery and the correct positioning of the lens and suture. Intraocular microendoscopy is now used in different aspects of glaucoma surgery. Vitreoretinal surgery has benefited considerably from this new method for the treatment of detached retina or cataract surgery complications. However, there are various limits to this procedure and further research is required to ensure its full integration with the conventional techniques of ophthalmological surgery.