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Rossi S., D¹Amico M., Mazzeo F., Vitelli M., Di Filippo C.
Scientific researches are aimed to reduce the glaucoma by means of neuroprotection since an optical nerve damage could determine visual loss. Actually, there are neuroprotective drugs such as i) blood flow enhancers such as Ca2+ blockers; ii) glutamate inhibitors; iii) nitric oxide inhibitors; iv) free radical scavengers/antioxidant. Moreover, experimental studies have shown that growth factors such as bFGF (basic fibroblastic growth factor), brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neutrophin-4 and ciliary neurotrophic (CNTF) greatly reduce retinal ganglion cell death rates after axotomy. Recent molecular genetic studies have identified the bax and bad genes as stimulators and bcl-x and bcl-2 genes as suppressor of retinal glanglion cell apoptosis.