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A Journal on Internal Medicine


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Minerva Medica 2016 June;107(3):162-6

language: English

Recent perspectives of bladder cancer diagnostics

Yuling ZHANG 1, Fengxia XU 2, Fu Q. ZHANG 3, Lei SONG 3, Cui CHEN 1

1 Department of Cardiovascular, Yidu Central Hospital, Qingzhou, China; 2 Department of Oncology Nursing, Yidu Central Hospital, Qingzhou, China; 3 Department of Oncology, Yidu Central Hospital, Qingzhou, China


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The human bladder cancer (BC) diagnostics is being improvised every day for the better management and efficient diagnosis. The primary aim of all these innovations is to accomplish timely treatment and planning of BC patients. Diagnostic approaches involved both invasive as well as non-invasive methods, wherein; the extent of the spread of carcinogenesis is the deciding factor. The latest in the upcoming techniques is the utilization of principles of immunology for better and highly specific diagnosis. The present review article will be focused on the latest diagnostic methods for the better diagnosis of BC like utilization of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) BTA (bladder tumor antigen) etc. for the early BC diagnosis.

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