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PARKINSON’S DISEASE AND OTHER MOVEMENT DISORDERS
Goldman J. G. 1, Litvan I. 2
1 Section of Parkinson Disease and Movement Disorders, Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University, Chicago, IL, USA;
2 Movement Disorder Program, Neuroscience Department, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
Parkinson’s disease (PD) traditionally has been defined by its characteristic motor hallmarks, but non-motor features such as cognitive impairment and dementia are increasingly recognized as part of PD. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is common in non-demented PD patients, occurring in about 20-50%. Frequency estimates and clinical features of mild cognitive impairment in PD (PD-MCI), however, vary across studies due to methodological differences and lack of uniform diagnostic criteria for PD-MCI. Overall, PD-MCI patients exhibit nonamnestic deficits in cognitive domains such as executive function, attention, and visuospatial function; however, the cognitive phenotype of PD-MCI is heterogeneous with some patients demonstrating greater amnestic deficits. PD-MCI patients, particularly those with posterior cortical profiles, may be at high risk for developing dementia. Various biomarkers studied in PD-MCI including cerebrospinal fluid, genetic analyses, and neuroimaging suggest that there may be distinct PD-MCI profiles. Future studies using uniform PD-MCI diagnostic criteria and incorporating biomarkers and longitudinal follow-up of PD-MCI cohorts are needed to understand PD-MCI as a transitional state between normal cognition and dementia.