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Stiles M. C., Seaquist E. R.
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA
Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to cause widespread complications in numerous organ systems, including the brain. In this review we will discuss the structural changes that have been identified in humans with type 1 diabetes using magnetic resonance imaging. We will also review how diabetes, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia have been found to alter neurocognitive function in patients with this disease. Potential mechanisms that may underlie the development of the cerebral structural and function changes seen in patients with type 1 diabetes will then be presented.