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Minerva Medica 2007 June;98(3):191-201

language: English

Menopause and related problems

Gambacciani M., Pepe A.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Pisa University Hospital, Pisa, Italy


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Due to the increase in life expectancy and the constant age at menopause, women at the West, can now expect to spend more than 1/3 of their lifetime after menopause. This leads to increased concern regarding not only short-term symptoms, but also long-term consequences of estrogens deficiency. Understanding the natural history of menopausal symptoms and long-term consequences of estrogen deficiency requires long-term data on numerous women from different backgrounds. We have evaluated scientific evidences for the association between menopause and somatic or psychological problems; the temporal association of different symptoms with stage of the menopausal transition and the consistency of risk factors for symptoms.

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