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Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Online ISSN 1827-1650
Micallef S. 1, Micallef D. 1, Schembri-Wismayer P. 1, Brincat M. P. 2, Calleja-Agius J. 1
1 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Tal‑Qroqq, Msida, Malta;
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mater Dei Hospital, Birkirkara, Malta
The risk of an individual woman to develop breast cancer over a 5-year period can be estimated using the Gail Model. The risk factors included in this model effectively classify patients into two different subgroups. One subgroup comprises patients at increased risk because of increased exposure to estrogen. These women are more likely to benefit from endocrine chemopreventive therapies, namely selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). The second subgroup comprises women who have inherited genetic mutations that predispose them to breast cancer. Chemoprevention in these patients is more likely to be achieved by novel agents, such as lapatinib, gefitinib, fenretinide, rexinoids and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) -inhibitors.