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A Journal on Obstetrics and Gynecology

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Minerva Ginecologica 2015 February;67(1):81-94

language: English

Management of perinatal lung malformations

Macardle C. A. 1, Kunisaki S. M. 2

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St. Joseph’s Mercy Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA;
2 Pediatric Surgery Section, Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children’s and Von Voigtlander Women’s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI, USA


This review uses the most up-to-date literature to help guide obstetrical providers through the diagnosis and management of perinatal lung malformations. These lesions, which include congenital pulmonary airway malformation [CPAM, formerly congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM)] and bronchopulmonary sequestration (BPS), are relatively rare but are becoming increasingly common because of the improved resolution and enhanced sensitivity of fetal ultrasound. Serial assessment throughout pregnancy remains the norm rather than the exception. Perinatal management strategies can differ based on the sonographic characteristics and dynamic growth patterns of lung masses. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and other diagnostic testing can sometimes be helpful in providing additional prognostic information. Over the last decade, the importance of echocardiography and utility of maternal steroids have been recognized in cases of non-immune hydrops. Fetal surgery is now rarely performed. Decisions regarding whether delivery of these fetuses should occur in a tertiary care center with pediatric surgery coverage versus delivery at a local community hospital are now highly relevant in most prenatal counseling discussions with families. Large lung malformations may require urgent surgical removal in the early postnatal period because of respiratory distress. Other complications, such as recurrent pneumonia, pneumothorax, and cancer, are indications for lung resection on an elective basis. In the vast majority of cases, the overall prognosis remains excellent.

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