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A Journal on Obstetrics and Gynecology
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Minerva Ginecologica 2014 February;66(1):69-76
Post-traumatic amenorrhea: the role of diagnostic and operative hysteroscopy in the prevention, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment
Pulcinella R. 1, Giannone L. 2, Candelori E. 3, Giannone E. 3, Patacchiola F. 4 ✉
1 Section of Gynecology and Obstetrics “San Donato” Hospital, Arezzo, Italy;
2 Section of Obstetrics and Gynaecology “Santa Maria della Misericordia” Hospital University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy;
3 Section of Obstetrics and Gynaecology “Santa Maria” Hospital, Terni University of Perugia, Terni, Italy;
4 Department of Health Science University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the selective removal of residual intrauterine trophoblastic tissue by using a hysteroscopic procedure, especially in the prevention of the Intra-Uterine Adhesion’s Syndrome.
Methods: Seventy-six patients had an Asherman’s Syndrome: 5 cases after laparotomic myomectomy, 1 after caesarean section, 2 after hysteroscopic myomectomy, 10 after VIP, 1 with a severe vaginal endometriosis, 1 after conisation, 4 after a post-partum hemorrhage due to coagulopathy or uterine atony, 20 cases after D&C because of PPH due to placental retention, 26 after repetitive D&Cs because of AUB due to post abortion chorial residues’ retention, 6 cases after D&C for post menopausal AUB. Thirty-six patients presented AUB due to chorioplacental residues retention: 14 cases after a vaginal delivery or a caesarean section, 4 after VIP, 18 cases after repetitive D&Cs for incomplete or internal spontaneous abortion. Complete physical examination, transvaginal ultrasonography and operative hysteroscopy was offered as first treatment to all patients. Surgical treatment of IUA depends on the type (I-IV) and is based on the section of synechiae, liberation of the uterine cavity and tubal recesses, recovery of the residual endometrium to restore the physiology of the reproductive tract. Our technique to remove the chorioplacental residues is based on: correct use of loops and electric currents, enucleation by cold loops of the base of the placental implant, and to single out the level of miometrial infiltration.
Results: After treatment we have noticed: two hysterectomies (for persistent AUB after myomectomy and for severe bleeding after dehiscence of a C. section), restoration of regular menstruations in 94.6% of patients (6 women in menopause), disappearance of pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea in all cases (100%), 8 pregnancies of the 9 women who were wanting child after hysteroscopic synechiolysis (88.9%).
Conclusion: According to the present study, the best way to prevent IUA is to make D&C for abortion, avoiding waiting longer than 24 hours, perform a D&C and then a diagnostic hysteroscopy after PPH in symptomatic women, reserve D&Cs only for a PPH, or an incomplete abortion, limit to only one D&C, always make a diagnostic hysteroscopy after D&C and uterine plugging for PPH.