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Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Online ISSN 1827-1650
Caringella A. M., Di Naro E., Loverro G.
Seconda Unità Operativa di Ginecologia e Ostetricia, Dipartimento di Ginecologia, Ostetricia e Neonatologia, Università degli Studi di Bari, Bari, Italia
Approximately 70-80% of endometrial carcinomas, type I carcinomas, are associated with endometrial hyperplasia, hyperestrogenism, and expression of estrogen receptor (ER). The aim of this review was to clarify the role of ER in endometrial diseases carcinoma. The estrogens exert their effect via two estrogen receptor: α and β. The ERs modulate transcriptional process by binding directly to the estrogen response elements (ERE) located in the target gene, or in non classical mode through protein-protein tethering with other transcription factors. There are also orphan receptors (their natural ligands have not been identified). Among this group, estrogen receptor-related receptors (ERRs) were identified by their sequences similar to those of ERs. Since the ERRs have shown a high similarity in DNA binding domain with ERs can interfere with estrogen signalling strengthening the hypothesis of an estrogen-ER-ERR crosstalk. Recently, the ERs and estrogen enzymes emerge as pharmacological targets in different disorders, as well as ERRs, and they may represent the reliable biomarkers in endometrial disease.