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A Journal on Obstetrics and Gynecology

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Minerva Ginecologica 2010 August;62(4):303-17

language: Italian

Evolution and future of contraception

Cagnacci A., Ferrari S.

Dipartimento Materno Infantile, Ginecologia e Ostetricia, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Modena Modena, Italia


In order to meet the need for efficacious and safe contraception, contraceptives are in continuous evolution. Among oral contraceptives evolution has brought reduction of ethynylestradiol doses, up to change the estrogenic molecule to natural estradiol. In order to individualize contraception, numerous different progestin molecules have been developed and are being tested. Individualization has also brought at developing new schedules for contraceptive administration, and different routes of administration. Important developments have appeared on parenteral hormonal contraception, such as the intravaginal, subdermal, transdermal or injective contraception. Intrauterine devices are being developed, becoming smaller, easier to insert, and sometimes capable to locally release progestins. New spermicides, that are capable to protect from sexually transmitted disease, are also being developed. Emergency contraception has evolved in a safer and more acceptable hormonal contraception. Recent introduction of molecules modulating progesterone receptors, seem to bring additional advantages by increasing the efficacy and extending the window of efficacy of emergency contraception.

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