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A Journal on Obstetrics and Gynecology
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Minerva Ginecologica 2005 December;57(6):593-610
Urinary incontinence in postmenopausal period: clinical and pharmacological treatments
Tinelli A., Tinelli R., Perrone A., Malvasi A., Cicinelli E., Cavaliere V., Tinelli F. G.
Urinary incontinence is a common clinical problem in female sex and occurs especially in postmenopausal women; this disease, that represents an economical problem for society, begins in young age, arises in middle age and increases in women more than 65 years old. Studies carried out on etiological factors involved in urinary incontinence show that estrogens enhance the trophism and vascularization of the muscular and fascial support of the pelvic floor, the growth of fibroblasts and the collagen metabolism in the superficial fascia in postmenopausal women. The postmenopausal estrogenic deficit could be related to many urogenital problems, but many researches performed on the effects of estrogens in urogenital postmenopausal homeostasis and of hormonal replacement therapy in postmenopausal incontinent women, did not show conclusive findings; for this reason, even if many authors attributed to menopause a role of major risk factor for incontinence, a direct correlation has never been confirmed. The treatment of postmenopausal female incontinence may be clinical and pharmacological, and includes a first step therapy (bladder training, biofeedback techniques, electrical pelvic floor stimulation) and a second step therapy (pharmacological therapy, bladder devices and surgical operations). In this review the clinical and pharmacological treatments, their efficacy and their application in incontinent postmenopausal women are described.