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A Journal on Obstetrics and Gynecology

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Minerva Ginecologica 2005 April;57(2):171-8


language: English, Italian

Congenital heart disease: a retrospective study of their frequency

Avagliano L., Grillo C., Prioli M. A.


Aim. An early diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) is necessary for the obstetrical management.
Methods. One thousand five hundred and fifty-six pregnant women underwent a fetal 2-D echocardiography from 1991 to 2002. We assessed patients who had the most common risk factor (RF): family history of CHD, diabetes mellitus, teratogen drugs, polyhydramnios, abnormal fetal growth, fetal arrhytmia, maternal age over 40 years, maternal autoimmune disease, maternal disease contracted during pregnancy, oligohydramnios, only umbilical artery, uncorrected visualization in the first level 2-D fetal echocardiography.
Results. In 110 morphological anomalies found 54 were complex. The malformations are not equally distribuited among the different RF. The most common RF is the family history of CHD where 24 patients showed complex malformations. Another high percentage of complex malformations was found in patients with no apparent presence of RF: the diagnosis was done after an incorrected cardiac visualization in the first level 2-D echocardiography. In the minor cardiomyophaties we did not find the prevalence of any RF. After diagnosis of complex malformations we had 15% of termination of pregnancies, 37% of the newbons are alive and in good health.
Conclusion. The first RF is the family history of CHD, but a correct first level fetal 2-D echocardiography is necessary because a very high percentage of complex malformations is seen in infant whose mother did not have any RF. Ninety percent of cardiac malformations where seen in a 4 chamber view, and it is of the utmost importance also for a correct diagnosis of minor cardiomyopathies where we did not find a predominant RF.

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