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A Journal on Obstetrics and Gynecology
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Emerging Sources Citation Index
Minerva Ginecologica 2000 July-August;52(7-8):289-98
Urination disorders in puerperium. A study of the highest risk factors
Troiano L., Pregazzi R., Bortoli P., Nadai M.
Background. There is a very wide range of genitourinary disorders which can follow vaginal birth, including slight and occasional problems as well as serious disorders which could affect a woman's social and sexual life, for example the effects of dyspareunia on a woman's sexual identity, social marginalization as an inevitable result of symptoms like urinary incontinence, urgency and fecal incontinence. The aim of this study was to identify elements which may be of use in understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms of these disorders.
Methods. Three weeks after birth 537 mothers underwent a clinical genitourinary evaluation including: collection of data regarding pregnancy development and birth, genitourinary history (urinary problem data collected in accordance with the proposal of the International Continence Society), an objective genitourinary examination with a PC-test and identification of possible antagonist abdominal-diaphragmatic muscular synergies, instrumental tests in cases of post-partum urinary incontinence.
Results. Maternal age at birth, parity, weight before pregnancy and at term, weight increase, gestational age, duration of the second stage of labour, development and characteristics of birth, perineal condition and neonatal weight were the variables considered as risk factors while genuine stress urinary incontinence, urge incontinence, frequency, urgency, dysuria and inability to interrupt urination were the disorders whose dependence on the various risk factors were to be studied. The analysis of the association of the various pairs of variables recorded both positive and negative correlations, whether the population taken was that of all puerperae or that of only primiparae.
Conclusions. Maternal age at birth, parity and duration of the second stage of labour, even if not always separable from other co-existing risk conditions, are the main responsible risk factors in the pathogenesis of urination disorders in puerperium. These results once again confirm the fundamental role of birth in the pathogenesis of female pelvic statics anomalies and of the genitourinary disorders which are their most evident chemical demonstration.