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1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University Prague, Czech Republic, Head of OB Klinika, Center for Treatment of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders Prague, Czech Republic
In the beginning of the 21st century obesity still represents health, social and economical threat for most of economically wealthy countries worldwide. Estimated direct costs for obesity and related comorbidities treatment exceed 5% of the total health care costs both in the US and in European Union. However, in addition there are obesity-related indirect costs linked to more frequent work sickness leave, higher unemployment rates and overall lower productivity of obese patients. Surgical treatment of obesity (bariatric surgery) is the most effective long-term treatment modality for those patients suffering from higher degrees of obesity. Bariatric surgery has not only positive effects on weight loss, but is also extremely effective in improving or resolving many of obesity-related comorbidities, which have evolved rapidly into the so-called metabolic surgery. T2DM may serve as excellent example of metabolic, obesity-related comorbidity which can be treated with bariatric-metabolic procedure even without direct relation to weight loss. In such cases bariatric surgery evolves into metabolic surgery. Thus metabolic operations (namely from the malabsorptive end) deeply influence hormonal secretion especially in the proximal part of small bowel, change parametres of entero-insular axis and have positive influence on insulin secretion, sensitivity and on the entire complex of glucose tolerance. Nowadays we can witness dramatic changes in perception of T2DM from bariatric surgeons, diabetologists, and many other medical specialists. T2DM has evolved from primarily medical disease into a condition where surgeons may play a more active role in the management of the diabetic patient. However, it has to be stressed that metabolic treatment of T2DM and other metabolic disorders need multidisciplinary approach and collaboration and that surgeon should play very important role as a multidisciplinary team member, however metabolic surgery should not yet be considered as stand-alone treatment modality.