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Mazeh H. 1, 2, Sippel R. S. 1
1 Section of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA;
2 Section of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hadassah-Hebrew, University Medical Center, Mount Scopus Jerusalem, Israel
Although thyroid cancer accounts for only 1.5% of all malignancies in the US it is the most rapidly increasing cancer in incidence and it is the most common endocrine malignancy that accounts for over 95% of the endocrine malignancies. Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) originates from the parafollicular C cells and it represents 6-8% of all thyroid cancer cases. As many as 25% of the MTCs are familial and carry a specific germline mutation as compared to only than 10% familial inheritance in non-medullary thyroid cancers. While well-differentiated thyroid malignancies carry a very good prognosis, recurrence and survival rates of patients with MTC are significantly worse. The difference in cell origin and differentiation also results in different available adjunct therapy. The aim of this study is to review in detail the surgical management of patients with MTC.