Home > Journals > Minerva Chirurgica > Past Issues > Minerva Chirurgica 2012 June;67(3) > Minerva Chirurgica 2012 June;67(3):211-7





A Journal on Surgery

Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,877




Minerva Chirurgica 2012 June;67(3):211-7

language: English

Evolution of segmental anesthesia for laparo-endoscopic single site (LESS) cholecystectomy

Ross S. B. 1, 2, Mangar D. 1, 3, Karlnoski R. 1, 3, Patel R. S. 3, Camporesi E. M. 1, 3, Barry L. K. 1, 2, Luberice K. 1, 2, Sprenker C. J. 3, Rosemurgy A. S. 2

1 Department of Surgery, the University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA;
2 The Center for Surgical Digestive Disorders, Tampa General Hospital, Tampa, FL, USA;
3 Florida Gulf-to-Bay Anesthesiology, Tampa General Hospital, Tampa, FL, USA


AIM: Transumbilical Laparo-Endoscopic Single Site (LESS) surgery promises improved cosmesis, quick recovery, reduced postoperative pain and shorter length of hospital stay. Since only a simple umbilical incision is used, LESS surgery can be completed with segmental epidural anesthesia. This study describes the evolution of our technique of LESS cholecystectomy from a combination of spinal and epidural anesthesia to thoracic epidural alone and presents our experience with its safety, the observed morbidity, and the reported patient satisfaction.
METHODS:In August 2009, a prospective evaluation of LESS cholecystectomy with regional anesthesia was undertaken. We recruited patients with chronic cholecystitis or symptomatic cholelithasis. Blood loss, operative time, complications, and length of hospital stay were measured. Preoperatively and 14 days postoperatively, outcome and symptom resolution were scored.
RESULTS: Fifteen consecutive patients underwent LESS cholecystectomy; first with combined spinal-epidural (CSE), and then with thoracic epidural anesthesia alone. Immediate postoperative pain and discomfort were well tolerated. VAS scores upon admission to PACU were 0.4 (1.7±2.2). At postoperative day 14, the patients scored high values for “Satisfaction”, 10 (10±1.0) and “Cosmesis”, 10 (9.3±1.5).
CONCLUSION: LESS cholecystectomy with epidural anesthesia can be undertaken safely. Patient satisfaction and cosmesis are particularly prominent amongst our patients. Our experience supports further utilization of epidural anesthesia for selected patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy.

top of page

Publication History

Cite this article as

Corresponding author e-mail