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Chopra S. S.1, Eisele R. M. 1, Denecke T. 2, Stockmann M. 1, Lange T. 3, Eulenstein S. 3, Schmidt S. C. 1, Neuhaus P. 1
1 Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Charité Campus Virchw Clinic, University Medicine, Berlin, Germany;
2 Department of Radiology, Charité Campus Virchw Clinic, University Medicine, Berlin, Germany;
3 Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), University Medicine, Berlin, Germany
Technological developments, advances in perioperative medicine and ongoing scientific research have led to reduced rates of mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing major liver surgery. Under these conditions, the frontier of resectability is constantly in movement towards more complex cases with extended tumor spread and potentially minimized remnant liver volume. A promising technique to support oncological correct and safe liver surgery is the introduction of preoperative computer based planning models and intraoperative navigation systems. Whereas three-dimensional (3D) liver models are commercially available and have been clinically implemented, the use of navigation systems is currently under evaluation by different groups using a variety of techniques. This manuscript is meant to give the reader an overview on current developments, difficulties and future aspects of image guided liver surgery.