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A Journal on Surgery
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,877
Minerva Chirurgica 1999 January-February;54(1-2):37-48
Single-stage surgery of neoplastic colorectal occlusion. Experience of 133 cases
Gullino D., Giordano O., Ghione S., Masella M., De Carlo A., Lijoi C.
Background and aim. 133 cases of occluded colorectal neoplasms (14% of the entire series): 30 (23%) of the right colon, 103 (77%) of the left colon-rectum; 69 males (52%) and 64 females (48%); mean age 67.5 years old, range 33-91 years. pTNM: stage II, 28 cases (21%); stage III: 43 cases (32%); stage IV, 62 cases (47%). The aim of this study was to resolve the occlusive symptoms and to treat the neoplasm in a single operation.
Methods. In the 62 cases at stage IV, surgery was solely palliative: 49 (79%) derivations, 13 (21%) entero-enterostomies and 36 (58%) preternatural anus; 11 (18%) standard hemicolectomies, extended in two cases to hepatic resection, and 2 (3%) Hartmann's operations. In the 71 cases at stages II and III, surgery took the form of standard colic exeresis with primary ligature of the colonic vessels at source and at the outlet; 15 (21%) right colectomies, 50 (70%) left colectomies, extended in 6 cases (8%) to abdomino-perineal amputation; 6 segmentary colectomies, 3 (4%) of the transverse colon and 3 (4%) Hartmann's operations. The following aspects are essential in this single-stage surgery: urgency; massive dose antibiotic treatment limited to the pre- and perioperative stages; peritoneal cleansing using accurate, methodical, repeated and abundant lavage; perioperative colonic preparation using direct colotomic perioperative lavage or using a trans-bucco-enteric access (using Grosz-Dennis tube); the peritonisation of the retroperitoneum with the omentum and the protection of the anastomosis using omental wrapping and active lavage and, for colorectal anastomosis, even using the 3-way tube, lavage and active aspiration, in a transanal trans- or sub-anastomotic position. Total parenteral feeding is useful for 6-7 days.
Results. In the 62 cases at stage IV, postoperative morbidity was 3 cases (6%): 3 suppurations of laparotomy, and mortality occurred in 10 cases (16%): one case of anastomotic disunion (pre-Gullino's tube), 3 cases of septic shock and 6 cardiorespiratory failures. Mean postoperative hospitalisation was 14 days. All these patients died owing to the spread of neoplasms within 1-40 months, mean 13 months. The worst results were obtained in entero-enterostomies: 1-9 months, mean 5 months. In the 71 cases at stages II and III, postoperative morbidity was 3 cases (4%): a small anastomotic filtration after right colectomy and 2 suppurations of the laparotomic incision; mortality amounted to 10 cases (14%): one case of septic shock, one of acute hepatitis, one intestinal infarction and one cardiac infarction, 3 pulmonary embolisms and 3 cardiorespiratory failures. Mean postoperative hospitalisation was 13 days, only 10 in cases of left colectomy with anastomosis protected by Gullino's tube. The long-term results were very good in these 71 patients: over 5-year survival of 50% (Kaplan-Meier).
Conclusions. Using this courageous single-stage surgery, the results are optimal even at a distance, together with reduced surgical trauma and a shorter hospital stay.