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Official Journal of the Italian Society of Angiology and Vascular Pathology
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,752
Online ISSN 1827-1618
De Vecchis R. 1, Cioppa C. 1, Giasi A. 1, Pucciarelli A. 2, Ariano C. 1, Pucciarelli G. 1, Cantatrione S. 1
1 Cardiology Unit, Presidio Sanitario Intermedio”Elena d’Aosta”, Naples, Italy;
2 Department of Cardiology, Postgraduate Medical School, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy
AIM: The passage from II to III New York Heart Association (NYHA) class is indicative of cardiopulmonary impairment and unfavourable prognosis. Among chronic heart failure(CHF) II NYHA class patients, the topic has been debated what criteria have be assumed for identifying the patients prone to accelerated progression towards III NYHA class.
METHODS: A case cohort study, including a number of CHF II NYHA class patients, was carried out, to evaluate the role as predictor of CHF worsening of some ultrasonographic parameters, listed as follows: left ventricular ejection fraction, as continuous and as a dichotomous variable, i.e. subdivided as follows: 1) LVEF larger than 40% and 2) LVEF ranged from 30% to 40%; mitral regurgitation (MR), as continuous and as a dichotomic variable (i.e. moderate-to-severe MR, defined by transmitralic jet planimetric area estimated as larger than 20% of left atrium area), restrictive LV filling pattern and pulmonary systolic arterial pressure >40 mmHg. The pts were subdivided in 3 categories, as follows:1) diastolic CHF, i.e. heart failure with normal or only mildly impaired left ventricular ejection fraction - 20 patients; 2) systolic CHF, i.e. heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction - 19 patients; and 3) CHF due to “organic” mitral insufficiency-19 patients. All patients were treated with pharmacologic therapy, according to their respective clinical features and typology of basal heart disease. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) for the composite endpoint death and hospitalization due to worsening CHF were investigated, concerning each of the abovementioned criteria. Moreover, the odds ratios (OR) were calculated, by not conditional logistic regression analysis, to achieve information about risk of death and/or worsening CHF, as well as the respective profiles of risk, assessed by relative risk (RR).
RESULTS: From 173 followed-up patients, 58 patients,70±12 aged, whose 15 cases (transition to III NYHA class) and 43 controls, were included in retrospective analysis. Notewhorty, moderate-to-severe MR only seemed to play a role as reliable predictor of worsening CHF(sensitivity: 93.3%; specificity: 69.7%; PPV: 51.8%; NPV: 96.7%; RR:15.93; OR: 32.3), as its sensitivity and PPV, particularly, were shown to exceed far and away the values of sensitivity and PPV associated to each of other echographic and/or clinical variables. Nevertheless, at multivariate analysis,MR expressed as continuous variable only, but not as “categorical” variable-was demonstrated to independently predict the transition from II to III NYHA class, over two years clinical follow up.
CONCLUSION: The present data seem to support the view that the larger regurgitant jet of mitral insufficiency, the higher the risk of worsening CHF during a two years follow up. Likewise, it is plausible the moderate-severe MR represents a predictor of increased risk of transition to III NYHA class among the CHF II NYHA class patients. In addition, this study seems to indicate that a surgical therapy (prosthetic replacement or mitral valvuloplasty)should always be planned in the case of II NYHA class CHF patient who has been recognized affected by moderate-to-severe MR, since the chances of successful pharmacological prevention of clinical impairment in this setting turned out to be very slight.