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A Journal on Heart and Vascular Diseases
Official Journal of the Italian Society of Angiology and Vascular Pathology
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,752
Minerva Cardioangiologica 2006 April;54(2):277-84
Submassive acute pulmonary thromboembolism with normal D-dimer. A case report
Di Grande A., Tomaselli V., Massarelli L., Narbone G., Sabbia C. M., Noto P., Amico S., Nigro F., Di Mauro A.
Unit of Emergency Medicine and Surgery S. Elia Hospital, Caltanisetta, Italy
Pulmonary thromboembolism is a relatively common disease in an Emergency Department. Diagnosis, often difficult, is based on careful evaluation of risk factors, clinical examination, radiological and laboratory investigations. Plasma D-dimer, a degradation product of cross-linked fibrin with low specificity and very high sensibility, is considered extremely useful as screening to rule out a pulmonary thromboembolism. We report the case of a 74 year old woman who presented in the Emergency Department suffering from the sudden onset of dyspnea 4 hours before. Plasma D-dimer (automated latex-enhan-ced turbidimetric test) was normal (253 ng/mL; normal value: 278 ng/mL), but spiral CT angiography showed a sub-massive thromboembolism of the principal branch of the right pulmonary artery, also involving the middle and the inferior lobar branches. A cardiac echo-color-Doppler demonstrated an enlargement of the right cardiac section with telediastolic pressure in the pulmonary artery of 74 mmHg (normal value 4-12 mmHg). A second measurement of plasma D-dimer, 12 hours later, remained in the normal range (274 ng/mL) and only after four days was there a significant increase (1017 ng/mL). The authors, taking the case as a starting point, stigmatize the difficulties that such diagnosis involves, despite indications of guidelines.