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A Journal on Heart and Vascular Diseases

Official Journal of the Italian Society of Angiology and Vascular Pathology
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Minerva Cardioangiologica 2005 August;53(4):221-32

language: English, Italian

Heart failure and therapy

Mazzone M., Portale G., La Sala M., Covino M., Testa A., Pignataro G., Mancini F., Bononi F., Forte P., Ursella S., Gentiloni Silveri N.


The clinical syndrome of heart failure is the final outcome of a number of diseases affecting the heart. Several studies undertaken over the past decade, have led to a significant change in the therapies available and a growing understanding of the physiopathological mechanisms. Increasingly, the current treatment of heart failure, is not just symptomatic but also etiologic and physiopathologic. In this paper we will try to furnish guidelines, as practical as possible, for the treatment of this syndrome, addressing the physiopathologic and experimental principles which underlie it. The present suggestions are based on the updated literature review, they conform to the latest guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology and are in agreement with the classification in grades, proposed by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology.

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