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A Journal on Heart and Vascular Diseases

Official Journal of the Italian Society of Angiology and Vascular Pathology
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Minerva Cardioangiologica 2003 December;51(6):619-34

language: Italian

Atrial septal defect and transesophageal echocardiography. From the diagnosis to the monitoring of transcatheter closure

Tamburini G., Pepi M.


Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital heart disease representing 30% of congenital lesions in adults. Transcatheter closure has been regarded as an acceptable alternative treatment for patients with ASD. The prevalence of patent oval foramen (POF) is approximately 26% in autopsy and clinical studies, but it has been demonstrated that this prevalence is higher in patients with cryptogenic stroke. Even though the role of POF in the etiopathogenesis of cryptogenic stroke is debated, recurrent paradoxical embolism in the presence of POF associated with high motility of the membrane or with an atrial septal aneurysm is currently considered an indication for POF closure. This review covers the role of echocardiography (including transthoracic, transoesophageal and 3-dimensional methods) in the detection and diagnosis of these defects as well as the contribution of these techniques in the monitoring and follow-up of ASD and POF percutaneous closure.

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