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A Journal on Heart and Vascular Diseases
Official Journal of the Italian Society of Angiology and Vascular Pathology
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,752
Minerva Cardioangiologica 2003 October;51(5):463-74
language: English, Italian
Enoxaparin for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction with persistent ST-segment elevation
Rubboli A., Herzfeld I., Maresta A.
Enoxaparin (E) is a low-molecular-weight heparin which has been proven more effective than unfractionated heparin (UFH) for the treatment of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Limited and inconclusive on the other hand, are the data on the use of E in acute myocardial infarction with persistent ST-segment elevation (STEAMI). Therefore, we performed a review of the literature in order to evaluate the level of evidence relative to the efficacy and safety of E in such a clinical setting. The effect of E in STEAMI has been evaluated in 7 clinical studies, including a total of about 9500 patients. Compared to placebo, E resulted more effective on the incidence of the combined end-point of death, re-infarction and recurrent angina in the study by Glick et al. and on the patency of the infarct-related artery in the AMI-SK study. Compared to UFH, E resulted more effective on the incidence of the combined end-point of death, reinfarction and unstable angina in the study by Baird et al. and of in-hospital re-infarction and refractory ischemia rates in both ASSENT-3 and ASSENT-3 PLUS, while the effect on the patency of the infarct-related artery, which was evaluated in HART-II and ENTIRE-TIMI 23, resulted non univocal. Overall, bleeding complications were more frequent than with placebo and comparable to UFH, with the exception of ASSENT-3 PLUS where pre-hospital administration of E was associated with a doubled incidence of intracranial bleeding (although only in patients older than 75 years). In conclusion, the administration of E, in association with aspirin and thrombolytics, already appears a possible therapeutic option for the treatment of STEAMI, due to its good efficacy and safety profile, along with its easiness of use. However, prior to have its use recommended, the current B level of evidence of a superior efficacy and safety compared to UFH needs to be reinforced. Further-more, some open issues relative to the use of E in particular settings (aged patients, in association with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and during percutaneous coronary revascularization) need to be clarified.