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A Journal on Heart and Vascular Diseases
Official Journal of the Italian Society of Angiology and Vascular Pathology
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,752
Minerva Cardioangiologica 2002 August;50(4):357-62
Detection of left ventricular endocardial border with tissue harmonic imaging
Carerj S., Andò G., Di Rosa S., Zito C., Pugliatti P., Polito C., Luzza F., Granata A., Oreto G., Arrigo F.
Background. Ultrasonic wave propagation in human tissues is not linear. As a consequence, harmonic waves, whose frequency is a multiple (harmonic) of the emitted frequency, are generated. Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) processes only the second harmonic frequency in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the received signal. The study was aimed at investigating the impact of THI on the detection of the Left Ventricular (LV) endocardial border. Attention was paid to determine which LV walls were analysed more clearly with THI rather than with conventional Fundamental Frequency Imaging (FFI).
Methods. We compared the FFI and the THI visualization of the 16 LV segments and of the 6 LV walls in 30 consecutive patients by scoring the images as bad, sufficient or good. The equipment used was a GE Vingmed System Five (Orten, Norway).
Results. Images were good in 85% of segments explored with THI, whereas FFI provided good images in 47% of segments (p<0.001). From the apical window, visualization of the apex, lateral wall and anterior wall significantly improved with THI; using the parasternal approach, imaging of posterior wall was definitely better with THI than with FFI.
Conclusions. THI enhances both endocardial visualization and global image quality. Technical development, however, increases the diagnostic possibilities of echocardiography but does not substitute the operator's experience.