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Minerva Biotecnologica 2001 March;13(1):69-72

language: English

A ­future ­role for the use of arbus­cu­lar mycor­rhi­zal fun­gi in ­soil reme­di­a­tion: a ­chance for ­small-medi­um enter­pris­es?

Vosatka M.

Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prohonice, Czech Republic


Arbuscular mycor­rhi­zal fun­gi (AMF), the impor­tant ­root sym­bi­onts, ­should be regard­ed as a ­vital com­po­nent of the phy­tor­e­me­di­a­tion ­systems. They are ­able to ­take ­active or pas­sive ­part in phy­toex­trac­tion, phy­to­deg­ra­da­tion or phy­tos­ta­bil­isa­tion. Mycorrhiza can ­play a ­role in ­uptake of con­tam­i­nants and ­their trans­lo­ca­tion ­through ­plant or in stim­u­lat­ing micro­bi­al activ­ities in the rhiz­o­sphere. The ­major AMF struc­ture is the extra­car­dial myce­li­um (ERM) radi­at­ing ­from the ­roots ­into the ­soil. The mech­a­nism of reme­di­a­tion may con­sist in pol­lu­lants bio­sorp­tion on the sur­face of the ERM or in its poten­tial to har­bour spe­cif­ic bac­te­ria and pro­vide favour­able ­niche for bio­aug­men­ta­tion ­micro-organ­isms. Sequestration of ­heavy met­als with­in ERM ­hyphae was ­found as ­well as pos­i­tive ­effects of AMF of PAHs deg­ra­da­tion. Synergistic ­effects of AMF and bac­te­ria ­leads to poten­tial appli­ca­tion of mul­ti­func­tion­al prod­ucts incor­po­rat­ing a ­range of ­micro-organ­isms ­required for bio­re­me­di­a­tion. Most impor­tant­ly the AMF facil­i­taty facil­i­tate the for­ma­tion of ­plant cov­er and ­improve ­plant fit­ness. Application of AMF as sup­por­tive ­agents for phy­tor­e­me­di­a­tion can alle­vi­ate ­some lim­i­ta­tion of phy­tor­e­me­di­a­tion pro­cess­es, can ­increase the abil­ity to with­stand envi­ron­men­tal ­stress, ­increase resis­tance to ­drought, patho­gens and ame­li­o­rate tox­ic­ity of pol­lu­lants. An appro­pri­ate strat­e­gy for appli­ca­tion of mycor­rhi­zal prod­ucts in con­tam­i­nat­ed ­soils ­seems to the tun­ing of spe­cif­ic prod­ucts (mix­tures of ­stress-tol­er­ant indig­e­nous fun­gi-adapt­ed to tar­get envi­ron­ment) rath­er ­than use of gener­ic prod­uct. Using AMF for reveg­e­ta­tion of con­tam­i­nat­ed ­holds a ­great mar­ket poten­tial for the ­small-medi­um enter­pris­es pro­duc­ing and apply­ing mycor­rhi­zal prod­ucts. However, knowl­edge ­should ­still be extend­ed regard­ing the AMF ­role in bio­re­me­di­a­tion. A ­great ­attempt ­should ­also be under­tak­en to ­increase aware­ness of poten­tial end-­users regard­ing func­tions and ­impacts of mycor­rhiza in phy­tor­e­me­di­a­tion pro­cess­es.

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