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A Journal on Anesthesiology, Resuscitation, Analgesia and Intensive Care
Minerva Anestesiologica 2016 May;82(5):599-604
Critical care in the near future: patient-centered, beyond space and time boundaries
Luca CABRINI 1, Giovanni LANDONI 1, Massimo ANTONELLI 2, Rinaldo BELLOMO 3-5, Sergio COLOMBO 1, Alessandra NEGRO 1, Paolo PELOSI 6, Alberto ZANGRILLO 1
1 Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Vita-Salute University, Milan, Italy; 2 Department of Intensive Care and Anaesthesiology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy; 3 Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Austin Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; 4 Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia; 5 Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia; 6 Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, IRCCS San Martino IST, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
Modern Critical Care aims at improving patient-centered outcomes, not limited to survival. Recently, along with traditional research evaluating single drugs or procedures, more elusive elements have been evaluated, like organizational and teamwork aspects, delivery of critical care before Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and after discharge. The aim of this review is to offer an up-to-date, comprehensive, and maybe “visionary” big picture of Critical Care in the near future beyond its traditional boundaries. In particular, we wish to suggest key elements that will allow a leap forward in terms of quality of care. Patient-centeredness will be the main issue, taking the patient’s wishes into account more than in the past. This means improving communication with patients and their relatives, and pursuing a holistic approach: we should pay more attention to natural light, noise reduction, music, prevention of sleep fragmentation, soft colors for walls, privacy, psychological support. An open visiting policy should be the standard. End-of-Life practices should become centered on patient wishes and dignity. Rapid response teams will bring timely critical care services to patients outside ICUs, preventing avoidable adverse events and unplanned ICU admission. In ICU, standardized protocols, checklists, daily goals sheets, advanced information technology and multidisciplinary rounds will improve quality of care and safety. Multicenter studies will be made easier and research should become part of daily practice in most ICU. Finally, the post ICU syndrome should be prevented and treated by a well-designed longitudinal care model taking care of patients from the ICU to the outpatient setting.