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Ranucci M. 1, Baryshnikova E. 1, Simeone F. 2, Ranucci M. 1, Scolletta S. 2
1 Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia and ICU, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Milan, Italy;
2 Department of Medical Biotechnologies, Anesthesia and Intensive Care, University of Siena, Siena, Italy
BACKGROUND: Acidosis is a well-known factor leading to coagulopathy. It has been widely explored as a risk factor for severe bleeding in trauma patients. However, no information with respect to acidosis as a determinant of postoperative bleeding in cardiac surgery patients exists. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of acidosis and hyperlactatemia (HL) in determining postoperative bleeding and need for surgical revision in cardiac surgery patients.
METHODS: We carried out a retrospective analysis on 4521 patients receiving cardiac operations in two institutions. For each patient the preoperative data and operative profile was available. Arterial blood gas analysis data at the arrival in the intensive care unit were analyzed to investigate the association between acidosis (pH<7.35), HL (>4.0 mMol/L) and postoperative bleeding and surgical revision rate.
RESULTS: After correction for the potential confounders, both acidosis (P=0.001) and HL (P=0.001) were significantly associated with the amount of postoperative bleeding. HL was an independent risk factor for postoperative bleeding even in absence of acidosis. Overall, surgical revision rate was 5.6% in patients with HL and no acidosis; 7.7% in patients with acidosis and HL, and 7.2% in patients with acidosis and no HL. All these values are significantly (P=0.001) higher than the ones in patients without acidosis/HL (2%).
CONCLUSIONS: Even a moderate degree of postoperative acidosis is associated with a greater postoperative bleeding and surgical revision rate in cardiac surgery patients. Correction of acidosis with bicarbonate does not lead to an improvement of the postoperative bleeding asset.