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A Journal on Anesthesiology, Resuscitation, Analgesia and Intensive Care
Minerva Anestesiologica 2015 April;81(4):398-404
Ultra-early decompressive hemicraniectomy in aneurysmal intracerebral hemorrhage: a retrospective observational study
Jussen D. 1, Marticorena S. 2, Sandow N. 2, Vajkoczy P. 2, Horn P. 1 ✉
1 Department of Neurosurgery, Dr. Horst Schmidt Kliniken Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden, Germany;
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
BACKGROUND: The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is frequently complicated by an extensive intracerebral hematoma (ICH). ICH represents a factor that worsens clinical outcome either due to early or delayed critical increase of intracranial pressure (ICP). Data on the management of aneurysmal ICH are lacking. Besides the securing of the ruptured aneurysm, there is the option of decompressive surgery to prevent secondary damage. The aim of this study was to analyze feasibility of decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) and the impact of timing in patients suffering from aneurysmal SAH with extensive ICH.
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with aneurysmal ICH matched for age, sex, World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grade and ICH volume. All patients were treated via aneurysm clipping in conjunction with hematoma removal followed by either primary ultra-early DHC directly after admission or secondary, i.e. delayed DHC. We analyzed patient characteristics and management and the influence on postoperative care and outcome. Parameters were ICP, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), length of neurointensive care treatment and duration of mechanical ventilation. Outcome interviews were conducted as Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E).
RESULTS: Nineteen consecutive patients with ruptured MCA-aneurysm and ICH were identified with median WFNS grade 5. Eleven patients were treated via primary, ultra-early DHC in mean 2.6±1.4 hours after admission. Eight patients were treated via secondary DHC in 47.6±34.2 hours after admission. In these patients, secondary DHC led to a significant decrease of peak ICP (50.2 mmHg preoperative vs. 10 mmHg postoperative). Mortality rate was six percent. In primary DHC group was a significantly better course of disease mirrored via reduced time of mechanical ventilation (14.4±3.3 vs. 25.5±3.4 days) and shorter hospital stay (18.7±2.1 vs. 26.3±3 days). Nevertheless there were no differences in long-term follow-up and most patients had a poor outcome.
CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that DHC is feasible in aneurysmal ICH. Timing appears to be a crucial factor concerning early and long-term control of ICP and outcome. We are therefore in favor of ultra-early DHC to treat especially poor grade patients with intracerebral mass lesion in aneurysmal hemorrhage to facilitate the ICP management as well as care within the ICU.