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Online ISSN 1827-1596
Price K. J., Cardenas-Turanzas M., Lin H., Roden L., Nigam R., Nates J. L.
Department of Critical Care, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
Background: The prognosis for adult acute leukemia patients that require intensive care unit (ICU) admission and invasive mechanical ventilation is poor. We aimed to identify prognostic indicators of 30-day hospital mortality in adult patients who had acute leukemia and respiratory failure, who had received invasive mechanical ventilation in the ICU but who had not received blood and marrow transplantation, were not admitted due to cardiopulmonary arrest or myocardial infarction and, had not recently undergone surgery.
Methods: In this case-control study, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of relevant patients >16 year old who had been admitted to the ICU at our institution over a 4-year period. The main outcome measure was 30-day hospital mortality. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine significant predictors of death.
Results: For the 167 patients meeting our eligibility criteria, the median age was 61 years. The majority was admitted due to respiratory insufficiency/failure (69%). The 30-day hospital mortality rate was 62%. Independent predictors of 30-day hospital mortality were advanced disease status (odds ratio [OR]=3.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-6.77) and increased organ failure at the time of intubation (OR=1.17; 95% CI, 1.03-1.33) per point increase in the SOFA score. Patients who had received endotracheal intubation within the first 24 h of ICU admission were less likely than others to die (OR=0.46, 95% CI, 0.23-0.91) within the next 30 days after admission to the hospital.
Conclusion: Advanced disease status and elevated SOFA scores at intubation are strong predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with acute leukemia and respiratory failure. The protective effect of early endotracheal intubation warrants further investigation.