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Online ISSN 1827-1596
De Chiara S., Chiumello D., Nicolini R., Vigorelli M., Cesana B., Bottino N., Giurati G., Caspani M. L., Gattinoni L.
1 Department of General Resuscitation, Institute of Anesthesia and Resuscitation University of Milan, Fondazione IRCCS, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli and Regina Elena, Milan, Italy;
2 Department of General Emergency Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli and Regina Elena, Milan, Italy;
3 Section of Medical Statistics and Biometrics-Department of Biotechnologies and Biomedical Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy
AIM: Several guidelines have recommended that antibiotic prophylaxis (AMP) should be given only at premedication, except in selected cases. Conversely, in clinical practice, AMP is often unnecessarily prolonged after the surgical procedure. In this observational study, we evaluated the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) associated with the prolongation of AMP after clean and clean-contaminated surgery.
METHODS: All consecutive patients who underwent a surgical procedure were eligible. AMP was always administered before the surgical incision. Prolongation of AMP for the first 24 hours was allowed only in presence of at least one risk factor for SSI: an ASA score >2 or surgical procedure longer than the specific cutoff (as indicated by the NNIS - the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System). SSIs were evaluated during the hospital stay and after hospital discharge.
RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-eight patients were enrolled; 19 (5.3%) and 17 (6.5%) patients developed respectively intra-hospital and post hospital discharge SSIs. AMP prolongation for 24 hours in patients with at least one risk factor did not reduce the risk for intra-hospital SSI (OR 1.102; 95% CI: 0.336-3.612; P=0.873), while it increased the risk in patients without risk factors (OR: 8.99; 95% CI: 1.46-55.4; P=0.018). AMP longer than 24 hours raised the risk for intra-hospital and post hospital discharge SSI, regardless of the presence of risk factors (OR: 3.39; 95% CI 1.11-10.35; P=0.032 and OR: 5.39; 95% CI: 1.64-17.75; P=0.006, respectively.)
CONCLUSION: Postoperative AMP prolongation should be avoided.