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A Journal on Anesthesiology, Resuscitation, Analgesia and Intensive Care

Official Journal of the Italian Society of Anesthesiology, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care
Indexed/Abstracted in: Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 2,036

Frequency: Monthly

ISSN 0375-9393

Online ISSN 1827-1596


Minerva Anestesiologica 2006 January-February;72(1-2):59-67



Patient-controlled analgesia with tramadol versus tramadol plus ketorolac

Lepri A. 1, Sia S. 1, Catinelli S. 1, Casali R. 2, Novelli G. 2

1 Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Orthopedic Traumatological Center Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi Florence, Italy
2 Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care University of Florence, Florence, Italy

Aim. In this double-blinded, randomized controlled trial, we compared the clinical advantages and disadvantages of patient-controlled-analgesia (PCA) with continuous infusion (CI) with tramadol alone versus a combination of tramadol plus ketorolac in the management of postoperative pain after major abdominal surgery.
Methods. Sixty adult patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Group T, was given 10 mg/mL tramadol and Group TK was given 1.50 mg/mL ketorolac plus 5 mg/mL tramadol. After an i.v. loading dose of 0.07 mL/kg, the demand bolus injection was set at 0.2 mL, with a lockout interval of 30 min, and a continuous background i.v. infusion was set at 1.5 mL/h. Data of PCA demand, dose delivered and total analgesic consumption were retrieved from the computer memory bank of PCA device. Visual analogue scale at rest, sedation score and the occurrence of adverse effects were assessed every 3 h for 18 h.
Results. No significant differences were found with regard to pain scores and side effects. Patients in Group TK were significantly more alert.
Conclusion. We concluded that the combination of ketorolac plus tramadol in the same PCA device was an effective and safe treatment for postoperative analgesia in abdominal surgery.

language: English, Italian


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