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A Journal on Anesthesiology, Resuscitation, Analgesia and Intensive Care
NURSING SMART 2003 - Milan, may 28-30
Minerva Anestesiologica 2003 April;69(4):315-9
Ventilator associated pneumonia
Bellani S., Nesci M., Celotto S., Lampati L., Lucchini A.
Servizio di Anestesia e Rianimazione, Azienda Ospedaliera San Gerardo, Monza, Italia
Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial lower respiratory tract infection that ensues in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. The reported incidence of VAP varies between 9% and 68% with a mortality ranging between 33% and 71%. Two key factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of VAP: bacterial colonization of the upper digestive-respiratory tract and aspiration of oral secretions into the trachea. Preventive measurements are advocated to reduce the incidence of VAP, such as selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD), supraglottic aspiration and positioning. Prompt recognition and treatment of established VAP has also been demostrated to affect outcome.
Therefore, the knowledge of risk factors associated with the development of VAP and the implementation of strategies to prevent, diagnose and treat VAP are mainstems in the nursing of mechanically ventilated patients.