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Online ISSN 1827-1596
Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care “San Giovanni di Dio” Hospital, Florence, Italy
Following an interpretative philosophy, dyna-mic and faithful to the complexity theory, a clinical pathway is outlined close to the reality, at the patient bedside, that is comprehensive of the diagnostic process in its temporal dynamism, of the therapeutic process in its specificity (antibiotic therapy, surgical souce control), in the use of organs supportive therapy (haemodynamic, respiratory, renal, etc.) and in the use of adjunctive and immunomodulatory therapies (APC, AT, etc.). The importance of the contextual activation of microbiological, immunological and coagulative monitorings is underlined. Through a critical review of the more recent literature, a strict relationship, in sepsis and septic shock, between inflammation and coagulation is described, that allowed the activated protein C (drotrecogin α activated) success, in terms of reduction of the absolute and relative mortality. This therapeutic success is contextualized into two other important therapeutic successes, recently obtained in severe sepsis and septic shock, based on the medical evidence, one using low doses of corticosteroids and the other using the early (6 h) goal directed haemodynamic therapy to restore a balance between oxygen delivery and oxygen demand. Once systemic inflammation is complicated by organ failure, there are few options. Treatment with activated protein C lowers the risk of death but is associated with an increased risk of bleeding and is likely to be expensive. The strategies described by the groups of Rivers and Annane offer the opportunity for good therapeutic results, by preventing the progression or even the development of sepsis and its complications: septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction.
language: English, Italian