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A Journal on Anesthesiology, Resuscitation, Analgesia and Intensive Care
ORIGINAL ARTICLES ANESTESIOLOGY
Minerva Anestesiologica 2001 January-February;67(1-2):23-7
Adiuvants in the axillary brachial plexus blockade. Comparison between clonidine, sufentanil and tramadol
ASL Pescara Ospedale SS. Trinità - Popoli (Pescara) Servizio di Anestesia e Rianimazione
Background. Evaluated effects of tramadol used as adiuvant in brachial plexus block and compared with clonidine and sufentanil.
Methods. Randomized, prospectic study with 80 patients, ASA status I-II, undergoing carpal tunnel release performed under axillary plexus block with ropivacaine 0.75% 20 ml divided in 4 study groups: tramadolo 100 mg (Group T), clonidina 1.5 γ/kg (Group C), sufentanil 20 γ (Group S) in 5 ml. of NaCl. Control (Group F) NaCl 5 ml. Adeguacy of the block was evaluated using pinprick test ( three points scale) and a temperature test. Onset time, duration of analgesia and anesthesia were recorded. Also during the surgery the sedation score on a five-point scale was evaluated and were recorded episodes of hypotension, bradycardia, Sp02<90% and other side effects. Results are reported as median±SD. For statistical analysis ANOVA test, Bonferroni test and χ2 test were used.
Results. Onset time of anesthesia showed significant difference between three study groups than control group, while no significant differences was recordered between groups S, C and T (S: 11±7 min; C: 12±4 min; T: 14±8 min; F: 20±11 min.). Same results were obtained among duration of anesthesia and analgesia, that were lower in F group. An adeguate quality of block for surgery was obtained in 79 patients. Only one patients of F group needed surgical infiltration. A significant difference was recordered among quality of anesthesia between group F and other three study groups. Highest sedation score was noted in C and S groups. Significantly highest incidence of bradycardia and hypotension episodes were observed in group C.
Conclusions. The use of tramadol as adiuvant provides a significative redution of onset time. Also provides a prolongation of anesthesia and analgesia with a quality of block similar that obtained with clonidine and sufentanil and a lower incidence of side effects of clonidine (sedation, bradycardia and hypotension) and sufentanil(itch and sedation). We conclude that tramadol may be a useful alternative, as adiuvant in periferic block, with same effects of other drugs commonly used and a lower incidence of side effects.