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A Journal on Anesthesiology, Resuscitation, Analgesia and Intensive Care
REVIEWS CRITICAL AND INTENSIVE THERAPY
Minerva Anestesiologica 2000 October;66(10):697-712
Positive pressure non invasive mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory failure
ASL n. 8 - Arezzo U.O. di Pneumologia
Known for two centuries, positive pressure non invasive mechanical ventilation (VMNPP) has been widely applied in acute respiratory failure (IRA) only in the last ten years. The fact that VMNPP is able to improve gas exchange by avoiding endotracheal intubation and its complications is the most attractive aspect in both general and respiratory intensive care units and in the respiratory ward. Characteristics of VMNPP (interface, ventilator and modality of ventilation), the side where it is performed as well as severity of IRA, underlying disease, and the team’s experience are important factors which influence outcome. The addition of VMNPP to conventional medical therapy reduces the need for IE, mortality and hospitalisation in a selected population of BPCO patients in IRA. As there are no available data for comparison between invasive mechanical ventilation (VMI) and VMNPP, the latter has not to be considered as an alternative to VMI but able to prevent it and, even if VMNPP fails, it may be used as a weaning technique. In IRA due to other than BPCO diseases VMNPP seems not to be more effective than standard treatment in avoiding IE but it may give efficient support with fewer complications as compared to VMI. Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and “terminal” diseases represent some of the most interesting application fields of VMNPP in non-BPCO patients. According to the latest literature data, in this review history, technique, advantages, limits, indications, nursing and cost of VMNPP are examined.