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A Journal on Sports Medicine

Official Journal of the Italian Sports Medicine Federation
Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
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Medicina dello Sport 2015 June;68(2):291-302


language: English, Italian

Which stretching technique is effective in decreasing glenohumeral internal rotation deficit?

Guney H. 1, Oznur Karabicak G. 1, Ozunlu Pekyavas N. 2, Teker B. 1, Ece Gunaydin O. 1, Balci P. 1, Baltaci G. 1

1 Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey; 2 Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey


AIM: Aim of the present study was to compare improvement in glenohumeral internal rotation deficiency (GIRD) and posterior capsule tightness (PCT) with the use of three different stretching techniques, the “manual stretching”, the “sleeper stretch” and the “cross body stretch” in individuals with GIRD.
METHODS: Seventy-one non-athletic women with GIRD were randomly assigned to the 1 of 3 groups: manual stretching (MS) (N.=24), cross body stretch (CBS) (N.=23) and sleeper stretch (SS) (N.=24). Glenohumeral (GH) internal rotation (IR), external rotation (ER) and horizontal adduction range of motion (ROM) were assessed to determine GIRD. The distance between olecranon and the table was assessed to determine PCT while subjects were on side-lying position. Each group was received one-week stretching application. Changes in ROM and PCT were compared between subjects using repeated measures of ANOVA.
RESULTS: The amount of GIRD and PCT decrease in MS group was significantly greater than SS and CBS groups (P=0.01). No differences were found in the amount of GIRD and PCT decrease within SS and CBS group (P>0.05). Manual stretching, sleeper stretch and cross body stretch are effective on decreasing glenohumeral internal rotation deficit. Stabilizing the scapula is important and mandatory during stretching applications for glenohumeral internal rotation deficit.
CONCLUSION: Manual-stretching exercise while scapula was more stabilized appears to be the most effective technique on the treatment of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit.

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