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MEDICINA DELLO SPORT
A Journal on Sports Medicine
Official Journal of the Italian Sports Medicine Federation
Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,163
Medicina dello Sport 2014 June;67(2):241-50
language: English, Italian
Peculiarities of preschool aged boys’ and girls’ physical state
Krivolapchuk I. A.
Department of Physiology of Muscular Activity and Physical Training, Institute of Developmental Physiology, Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia
AIM: Aim of this study was to assess the variation in rates of growth in height and development of body organs and systems across different age periods
METHODS: This study compared anthropometric characteristics and fitness performance data in a group (N.=123) of preschool boys and girls. The physical working capacity of preschool children at this age is determined by five major factors. Sex-related differences in some parameters reflect the physical working capacity and fitness characterizing the anaerobic alactic and anaerobic glycolytic productivity of the body.
RESULTS: The girls outperformed the boys for time of retention “hold to failure” at 4 W/kg (38.89±2.30 vs. 31.18±2.77 s; P<0.05), W40 (3.87±0.11 vs. 3.53±0.12 W/kg; P<0.05), the number of torso raising a minute (22.77±1.38 vs. 18.65±1.43 times/min; p<0.05), general physical fitness score (12.81±0.20 vs. 12.17±0.24; P<0.05); the coefficient of Muller’s equation «a» (2.07±0.07 vs. 2.35±0.11 a.u.; P<0.05) and the pulse debt accumulation rate after tension at submaximum power (2.17±0.06 vs. 2.41±0.09 bps; P<0.05) were lower for the girls. These differences are apparently related to an advanced development of anaerobic energy-supply mechanisms in girls as compared to age-matched boys. Analysis of physical development and central hemodynamics showed that the girls surpassed the boys in body length (111.8±0.6 vs. 110.1±0.6 sm; P<0.05), systolic blood pressure (92.3±0.90 vs. 89.1±1.3 mmHg; P<0.05), diastolic blood pressure (60.7±0.90 vs. 56.2±1.1 mmHg; P<0.01), blood pressure average (72.3±0.8 vs. 67.2±1.1 mmHg; P<0.001).
CONCLUSION: The higher blood pressure correlated with a more advanced somatic maturity in the girls, as well as the ratios of their physical growth at this stage of development.