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A Journal on Sports Medicine

Official Journal of the Italian Sports Medicine Federation
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Medicina dello Sport 2011 March;64(1):63-9

language: English, Italian

Worrisome prevalence of waterpipe smoking among athletes

Nakhostin-Roohi B., Valizadeh S.

Islamic Azad University, Ardabil Branch, Ardabil, Iran


Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of waterpipe smoking in athletes of Ardabil, a city in the Northwest of Iran.
Methods. The members of 16 sport associations (N.=1647) were randomized from 49 sport associations. A cluster sampling technique was used. The sampling unit was sport association.
Results. Of the 1647 participants, 14.7% and 10.5% of athletes were habitual and recreational users respectively; 24.4% of non-smokers stated they were in the exposure of waterpipe smoke. The most habitual smokers were wrestlers (42%), whereas the most recreational users were swimmers (26.1%). Prevalence of waterpipe smoking among football players was lower than among other athletes (non-smokers: 91.3% and habitual smokers: 0.0%). Just 36.8% of athletes believed waterpipe use affect their performance.
Conclusion. According to the knowledge of athletes about risks connected with waterpipe smoking data are not sufficient and most of the athletes would suffer from misunderstanding about risks of the waterpipe use. Knowledge promotion about waterpipe risks among athletes and the increase of recreational facilities may be a suitable manner to prevent this increasing phenomenon among athletes.

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