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Official Journal of the Italian Sports Medicine Federation
Indexed/Abstracted in: BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 0,163
Online ISSN 1827-1863
MEDICINE PREVENTIVE SECTION
Liguori G. 1, Boccia G. 1, Limongelli F. 2
1 Dipartimento di Medicina Pubblica, Clinica e Preventiva, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, Napoli;
2 Scuola di Specializzazione in Medicina dello Sport, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, Napoli
Structural characteristics and human behaviour are to be considered as the main sanitary aspects of sport locker rooms.
CONI regulations on sport grounds, approved on July 15, 1999, have already defined the structural requisitions, establishing qualitative and quantitative levels for the construction of plants and the renovation of the already existing installations.
As to human behaviour, the main concern is based on the prevention of accidents that may occur in locker rooms and of infectious diseases whose onset is strictly related to the kind of attendance.
The most frequently reported accidents are sprains, traumas, contusions, wounds caused by accidental falls, or electrocutions provoked by the incautious use of electric devices.
Skin and mucous membranes infectious diseases are indeed very frequent and normally caused by yeasts (Tinea pedis better known as athlete’s foot, candidiasis and pytiriasis), or by viruses (Herpes virus infection, contagious mollusc and verruca vulgaris) and by bacteria (impetigo, folliculitis and furunculosis).
Less recurring, but not less important, are the pathologies that may be transmitted by air, by oral-feces route and those caused by blood transmitted viruses.
In the former, a particularly long-lasting physical exercise provokes a secondary-level damage to the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract and hyperventilation, as well as the weakening of local defences and the modification of the IgM and IgA saliva levels (in particular of IgA1).
In the latter, for example HAV virus, entero and rotavirus, Salmonella species, a wrong hygienic sanitary behaviour, or an inadequate personal hygiene can be considered predisposing factor above all when environmental disinfecting actions are not systematically and properly carried out with adequate products.
Blood transmitted infections rarely occur during a game or later in locker rooms, unless there is a promiscuous use of toiletry or a direct contact with the blood of an infected person. A higher risk is known for HBV, while infection caused by HCV and HIV can be simply considered unusual.
A complete and systematic information campaign on existing laws and a correct behaviour in the premises turned into locker rooms are undoubtedly the most efficient prevention measures when managing dangers and risks for athletes’ health.